In the translator’s notes for the Blessed Hope Translation, readers will encounter a range of different abbreviations. In the “Abbreviations and Definitions” lists posted here, these abbreviations, as well as the resources or the concepts that they represent, are arranged and listed out by category.
Dead Sea Scrolls
exempli gratia, for example
id est, that is
ibidem, in the same place
sub verbo, under the word
Song of Solomon
Psalms of Solomon
English Functional Equivalent. Although there are certain areas in which Greek and English function in similar ways, there are also areas in which they accomplish certain tasks by means of different devices. In the footnotes, an EFE refers to a device that accomplishes in English what Greek accomplishes by means of its own devices.
Emphasis Other. In the footnotes, E-O means that a constituent is receiving emphasis based on factors and considerations other than newly activated information receiving extra focus through changes in word order. For more, see Runge, Steven E. The Lexham Discourse Greek New Testament: Introduction. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2008, 3.2.
Flesh in Biblical Theology Chart. In the footnotes, FBT Chart refers to the chart to which I turned regularly in attempting to identify the meaning of the word “flesh” in various contexts while translating. The chart can be accessed here.
Implicit Text. In the footnotes, IT refers to information that is activated from the context, and/or to the conceptual files that were automatically accessible to an original audience—and, therefore, were part of the text—but which may not be to modern readers. For further discussion, see the following sections in “My Approach to Translation”: An Integrative Approach, and Resources on Which I Have Leaned Heavily.
Meaning Equivalent. In the footnotes, ME refers to a rendering based on meaning rather than form. In other words, the translation choice reflects an answer to the question, “What does this mean?” For further discussion, see the following sections in “My Approach to Translation”: Differing Blueprints, When Has a Translator “Crossed the Line?”, An Integrative Approach, and Resources on Which I Have Leaned Heavily.
Meaning Equivalent (Historical). In the footnotes, ME(H) refers to a meaning-equivalent chosen primarily with historical considerations in mind. In other words, the translation choice was made with the goal of creating an accurate historical picture in the minds of readers.
Meaning Equivalent (Idiomatic/Figurative Language). In the footnotes, ME(I/F) refers to a rendering that attempts to convey the meaning of language that is likely to be obscure to many modern readers because of its highly figurative or idiomatic nature.
Meaning Equivalent (Old Testament Background). In the footnotes, ME(OTB) refers to a meaning-equivalent chosen in order to build conceptual bridges between the New Testament and the Old Testament background and theological framework that it presupposes. For further discussion, see the following sections in “My Approach to Translation”: Conceptual Bridges between OT and NT.
Position 2. This is a technical linguistic term derived from the work of Simon Dik (for an excellent summary of Dik’s model, see Runge, Discourse Grammar, 181-205, 269-85). Greek, like other languages, has its default or unmarked word order. In Greek, when a certain element is in Position 1 (P1), it means that the element is functioning as a frame of reference. When newly activated information is in P2, it means that the information is receiving extra focus and emphasis in the Greek text (many linguists prefer the term “prominence” to “emphasis”). In the footnotes, an element “being in P2” simply means that the element is being emphasized in the Greek text.
Verbal Complex Charts. In the footnotes, VCC refers to a set of charts in which I analyze the pragmatic function of certain verbs in certain contexts. Click Here to access the charts. For further discussion, see the following sections in “My Approach to Translation”: Resources on Which I Have Leaned Heavily and Attentiveness to Verbal Aspect.
Verbal Pragmatics Rendering. In the footnotes, VPR means that a verb or participle is being translated in accordance with its pragmatic function in a particular context. The analysis behind the rendering is represented in the Verbal Complex Charts.
The Anchor Bible
American Standard Version (1901)
Brazilian Portuguese Common Language Version
Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint
Contemporary English Version
Complete Jewish Bible
Dutch Common Language Version
English Standard Version
French Common Language Version
German Common Language Version
God’s New Covenant
Holman Christian Standard Bible
International Standard Version
Italian Common Language Version
Lexham English Bible
Lexham English Septuagint
King James Version (1900)
Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 27th edition
New American Bible
New American Standard Version (95)
New Century Version
New English Bible
The NET Bible
New International Version (84)
New Jerusalem Bible
New King James Version
New Living Translation
New Revised Standard Version
Revised English Bible
Revised New American Bible
Revised Standard Version
Spanish Common Language Version
Today’s English Version/Good News Bible
Translator’s New Testament
The UBS Greek New Testament, 4th edition
Young’s Literal Translations
Friberg, Timothy, Barbara Friberg, and Neva F. Miller. Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Baker’s Greek New Testament Library. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000.
Levinsohn, Stephen H. “BART Displays | Scholars.” Accessed May 23, 2019. https://scholars.sil.org/stephen_h_levinsohn/ bart.
Arndt, William, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Brown, Francis, Samuel Rolles Driver, and Charles Augustus Briggs. Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 2000.
Blass, Friedrich, Albert Debrunner, and Robert Walter Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Elwell, Walter A., and Barry J. Beitzel. Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988.
Wiersbe, Warren W. The Bible Exposition Commentary. Vol. 1. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1996.
Walvoord, John F., Roy B. Zuck, and Dallas Theological Seminary, eds. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures. Wheaton, Ill: Victor Books, 1983.
Thompson, Jeremy. Bible Sense Lexicon. Logos Bible Software. Bellingham, WA: Faithlife, 2015.
Black, David Alan. Learn to Read New Testament Greek. Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 2009.
Strong, James. A Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek Testament and The Hebrew Bible. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2009.
Holladay, William Lee, and Ludwig Köhler. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
Swanson, James. Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Greek (New Testament). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.
Swanson, James. Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.
Easton, M. G. Easton’s Bible Dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1893.
Elwell, Walter A. Evangelical Commentary on the Bible. Vol. 3. Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1995.
Elwell, Walter A., and Walter A. Elwell. Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1996.
Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Vol. 1. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 1896.
Exegetical Summary Series (SIL International)
Strong, James. Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2001.
Freeman, James M., and Harold J. Chadwick. Manners & Customs of the Bible. North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers, 1998.
Barry, John D., Michael S. Heiser, Miles Custis, Douglas Mangum, and Matthew M. Whitehead. Faithlife Study Bible. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2012.
Gesenius, Wilhelm, and Samuel Prideaux Tregelles. Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2003.
Achtemeier, Paul J., Harper & Row and Society of Biblical Literature. Harper’s Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985.
Brand, Chad, Charles Draper, and Archie England. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 2003.
Anders, Max, ed. Holman New Testament Commentary. Nashville, Tenn: Holman Reference, 1998.
Liddell, H.G. A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996.
Carson, D. A., R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, and G. J. Wenham, eds. New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition. 4th ed. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994.
Jamieson, Robert, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.
Josephus, Flavius, and William Whiston. The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987.
The Lexham Analytical Lexicon to the Septuagint. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2012.
The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2012, 2013, 2014.
Lange, John Peter, and J. J. van Oosterzee. A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. Translated by Philip Schaff and Charles C. Starbuck. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2008.
Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996.
Lust, Johan, Erik Eynikel, and Katrin Hauspie. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint : Revised Edition. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart, 2003.
Runge, Steven E. The Lexham Discourse Greek New Testament. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2008.
Runge, Steven E. The Lexham Discourse Greek New Testament: Glossary. Lexham Press, 2008.
Biber, Douglas, Susan Conrad, and Geoffrey Leech. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited, 2002.
Kittel, Gerhard, Gerhard Friedrich, and Geoffrey William Bromiley. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.
Lukaszewski, Albert L., and Mark Dubis. The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament: Expansions and Annotations. Logos Bible Software, 2009.
The Lexham Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament. Logos Bible Software, 2011.
Moulton, James Hope, and George Milligan. The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1930.
McGirr, Randall D. Ten Ways to Improve New Testament Translations: The Results of a Linguistic Evaluation. Review Copy. Context Scripture Translating, 2011. Accessed November 17, 2014.
Mills, M. S. (1999). The Life of Christ: A Study Guide to the Gospel Record (Mt 6:16–18). Dallas, TX: 3E Ministries.
Mish, Frederick C. “Preface.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003.
Neusner, Jacob. The Mishnah: A New Translation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.
Mounce, William D. Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar, 2nd ed.. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003.
New American Commentary. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
Thomas, Robert L. New American Standard Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries: Updated Edition. Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc., 1998.
Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition Notes. Biblical Studies Press, 2006.
Richards, Lawrence O. The Bible Reader’s Companion. electronic ed. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1991.
Runge, Steven E. Discourse Grammar of the Greek New Testament: A Practical Introduction for Teaching and Exegesis. Lexham Bible reference series. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson Publishers Marketing, 2010.
Robertson, A.T. Word Pictures in the New Testament. Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1933.
Robertson, A. T. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. Logos Bible Software, 1919.
Spence, The Pulpit Commentary
Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary: A Companion Volume to the Jewish New Testament. electronic ed. Clarksville: Jewish New Testament Publications, 1996.
Spicq, Ceslas, and James D. Ernest. Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1994.
Jenni, Ernst, and Claus Westermann. Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997.
Elwell, Walter A., and Philip Wesley Comfort. Tyndale Bible Dictionary. Tyndale Reference Library. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2001.
Hughes, Robert B., J. Carl Laney, and Robert B. Hughes. Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary. The Tyndale reference library. Wheaton, Ill: Tyndale House Publishers, 2001.
Kittel, Gerhard, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964–.
White, William. Edited by R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1999.
United Bible Society Handbook Series
Vincent, Marvin Richardson. Word Studies in the New Testament. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1887.
Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996.
Wuest, Kenneth S. Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: For the English Reader. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.
Yonge, Charles Duke with Philo of Alexandria. The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995.